Copper processing - Copper processing - Roasting, smelting, and converting: Once a concentrate has been produced containing copper and other metals of value (such as gold and silver), the next step is to remove impurity elements. Smelting of ferroalloys in a batch (periodic) process most often is made by the flux method, although under certain suitable conditions flux-less smelting is feasible. Any copper(I) oxide present will be converted into copper(I) sulfide during the smelting process because copper has a higher affinity for sulfur than it does for oxygen. In the whole smelting process, the most important is the reduction of iron and slagging reaction. The Hall–Héroult process is the major industrial process for smelting aluminium.It involves dissolving aluminium oxide (alumina) (obtained most often from bauxite, aluminium's chief ore, through the Bayer process) in molten cryolite, and electrolysing the molten salt bath, typically in a purpose-built cell. Smelting is the opposite of an oxidizing reaction to roasting. The single stage process is the simplest of all the iron bath process and theoretically represents the ideal designs where hot metal is produced in a single reactor in which both reduction and smelting takes place. The process involves a process in which equilmolar proportions of silicon carbide and silicon dioxide are charged to the reaction zone of a silicon furnace. Normally, the combustion of carbon is described by: for example: Cu 2 O + FeS → Cu 2 S + FeO. We use a reverberatory furnace in the industrial smelting of copper. One of the reactions to remove iron impurities is shown below: Process of Smelting. Reduction of Ore Reduction of Ore History of Iron Smelting Smelting Furnace Impacts on Society Concerns of the Chemical Process Postive Negative Bad for the environment creates sulfides, sulfur dioxide, and arsenic as byproducts in the form of slag Can release highly corrosive or The latter step can only be achieved with a chemical reaction. Nickel processing - Nickel processing - Extraction and refining: The extraction of nickel from ore follows much the same route as copper, and indeed, in a number of cases, similar processes and equipment are used. Impurities form a slag which floats on the surface and is easily removed. Also, we pour concentrated ore and a liquid, normally calcareous, into the rim, and molten matte— a mixture of copper, steel, and sulfur— and pull out the slag from the bottom. A silicon smelting furnace and a process for utilizing this furnace for the production of silicon is described. The process in which galena is smelted requires two important chemical reactions to occur within the furnace. Smelting process in the submerged arc furnaces is highly energy intensive and hence a large portion of the total production costs is goes for energy consumption. charcoal) in a low-oxygen chamber. With the fluxing method, the reduction of metal oxides proceeds with the reactions for every reductant type as follows schematically: In order to smelt this mineral, a blast furnace is needed to be used. A blast furnace is an enormous oven which is used to accomplish the smelting processes [2]. The extraction of metal from an oxide ore is accomplished via smelting, a process in which ore is mixed with some form of carbon fuel (e.g.

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