21כא ויברא אלהים את התנינם הגדלים ואת כל נפש החיה הרמשת אשר שרצו המים למינהם ואת כל עוף כנף למינהו וירא אלהים כי טוב [3] Each page is parchment, 33 cm high by 26.5 cm wide (13 inches x 10.43 inches). For an essentially complete Hebrew copy of Genesis you need to go to the 10th century Aleppo Codex, except that the Genesis portion of this manuscript was destroyed in anti-semitic riots in 1947. The ancient Hebrew word mesorah ( מסורה , alt. It was also written in Israel in the 10th century, and is now kept at the National Library of Israel as "ms. Heb 5702". Chorev Mikraot Gedolot by Hotzaat Chorev (Torah only). Other articles where Aleppo Codex is discussed: biblical literature: Masoretic texts: …production of the model so-called Aleppo Codex, now in Jerusalem. The Aleppo Codex (a readable online version of some books); The Leningrad Codex - downloadable facsimile; The Leningrad Codex - Westminster Theological Seminary version; The famous Ben Hayim edition (1525); The Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsaiah a) - Ardon Bar Hama's digital photographs (Israel Museum); The Digital Dead Sea Scrolls (The Israel Museum in partnership with Google) [3] This finally gave scholars the chance to examine it and consider the claims that it is indeed the manuscript referred to by Maimonides. The codex was kept for five centuries in the Central Synagogue of Aleppo, until the synagogue was torched during anti-Jewish riots in 1947. 11יא ויאמר אלהים תדשא הארץ דשא עשב מזריע זרע ×¢×¥ פרי עשה פרי למינו אשר זרעו בו על הארץ ויהי כן Genesis 4:8 provides a simple example of how this process works. 612, Photo taken in 1910 by Joseph Segall and published in Travels through Northern Syria (London, 1910), p. 99. [24] The ink was made of tree types of gall, ground and mixed with black soot and iron sulfate. 375–376 and footnote #81 on pg. The Aleppo Codex (Hebrew: כֶּתֶר אֲרָם צוֹבָא, IPA|kɛθɛɾ ʔăɾɔm sˁovɔʔ, Keter Aram Tsova) is a manuscript of the Hebrew Bible according to the Tiberian " masorah", produced and edited by the influential masorete Aaron ben Asher in the 10th Century CE. Reprinted and analyzed in. In 1947, rioters enraged by the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine burned down the synagogue where it was kept. [2] The fate of the codex during the subsequent decade is unclear: when it resurfaced in Israel in 1958, roughly 40% of the manuscript—including the majority of the Torah section—was missing, and only two additional leaves have been recovered since then. Aleppo Codex Images. Another manuscript of the Hebrew Bible from the same time period as the Aleppo Codex is the Leningrad Codex, kept in the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg, Russia. 'Crown of Aleppo') is a medieval bound manuscript of the Hebrew Bible. Written by Solomon ben Buya’a, it was corrected, punctuated, and furnished with a Masoretic apparatus by Aaron ben Moses ben Asher about 930. 12יב ותוצא הארץ דשא עשב מזריע זרע למינהו ועץ עשה פרי אשר זרעו בו למינהו וירא אלהים כי טוב 31לא וירא אלהים את כל אשר עשה והנה טוב מאד ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום הששי  {פ}, For comparative study, where possible, chapter and verse numbers on Biblos.com sites are mapped to the traditional convention used by the KJV, NASB, NIV and others.Bible Hub, The Aleppo Codex without Vowel Points or Punctuation Based on the electronic edition at, א בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ, ב והארץ היתה תהו ובהו וחשך על פני תהום ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים, ג ויאמר אלהים יהי אור ויהי אור, ד וירא אלהים את האור כי טוב ויבדל אלהים בין האור ובין החשך, ה ויקרא אלהים לאור יום ולחשך קרא לילה ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד  {פ}, ו ויאמר אלהים יהי רקיע בתוך המים ויהי מבדיל בין מים למים, ז ויעש אלהים את הרקיע ויבדל בין המים אשר מתחת לרקיע ובין המים אשר מעל לרקיע ויהי כן, ח ויקרא אלהים לרקיע שמים ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום שני  {פ}, ט ויאמר אלהים יקוו המים מתחת השמים אל מקום אחד ותראה היבשה ויהי כן, י ויקרא אלהים ליבשה ארץ ולמקוה המים קרא ימים וירא אלהים כי טוב, יא ויאמר אלהים תדשא הארץ דשא עשב מזריע זרע ×¢×¥ פרי עשה פרי למינו אשר זרעו בו על הארץ ויהי כן, יב ותוצא הארץ דשא עשב מזריע זרע למינהו ועץ עשה פרי אשר זרעו בו למינהו וירא אלהים כי טוב, יג ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום שלישי  {פ}, יד ויאמר אלהים יהי מארת ברקיע השמים להבדיל בין היום ובין הלילה והיו לאתת ולמועדים ולימים ושנים, טו והיו למאורת ברקיע השמים להאיר על הארץ ויהי כן, טז ויעש אלהים את שני המארת הגדלים  את המאור הגדל לממשלת היום ואת המאור הקטן לממשלת הלילה ואת הכוכבים, יז ויתן אתם אלהים ברקיע השמים להאיר על הארץ, יח ולמשל ביום ובלילה ולהבדיל בין האור ובין החשך וירא אלהים כי טוב, יט ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום רביעי  {פ}, כ ויאמר אלהים--ישרצו המים שרץ נפש חיה ועוף יעופף על הארץ על פני רקיע השמים, כא ויברא אלהים את התנינם הגדלים ואת כל נפש החיה הרמשת אשר שרצו המים למינהם ואת כל עוף כנף למינהו וירא אלהים כי טוב, כב ויברך אתם אלהים לאמר  פרו ורבו ומלאו את המים בימים והעוף ירב בארץ, כג ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום חמישי  {פ}, כד ויאמר אלהים תוצא הארץ נפש חיה למינה בהמה ורמש וחיתו ארץ למינה ויהי כן, כה ויעש אלהים את חית הארץ למינה ואת הבהמה למינה ואת כל רמש האדמה למינהו וירא אלהים כי טוב, כו ויאמר אלהים נעשה אדם בצלמנו כדמותנו וירדו בדגת הים ובעוף השמים ובבהמה ובכל הארץ ובכל הרמש הרמש על הארץ, כז ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו בצלם אלהים ברא אתו  זכר ונקבה ברא אתם, כח ויברך אתם אלהים ויאמר להם אלהים פרו ורבו ומלאו את הארץ וכבשה ורדו בדגת הים ובעוף השמים ובכל חיה הרמשת על הארץ, כט ויאמר אלהים הנה נתתי לכם את כל עשב זרע זרע אשר על פני כל הארץ ואת כל העץ אשר בו פרי ×¢×¥ זרע זרע  לכם יהיה לאכלה, ל ולכל חית הארץ ולכל עוף השמים ולכל רומש על הארץ אשר בו נפש חיה את כל ירק עשב לאכלה ויהי כן, לא וירא אלהים את כל אשר עשה והנה טוב מאד ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום הששי  {פ}. [23] In particular, only the last few pages of the Torah are extant. The Hebrew text of the Old Testament displays remarkable numeric patterns. [2][16], The missing leaves are a subject of fierce controversy. 27כז ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו בצלם אלהים ברא אתו  זכר ונקבה ברא אתם [21], The Leningrad Codex, which dates to approximately the same time as the Aleppo codex, has been claimed by Paul E. Kahle to be a product of the ben Asher scriptorium. This manuscript was used by the Rambam as a reference for the correct reading of the Tanach. [5][6] When the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099, the synagogue was plundered and the codex was held for a high ransom, which was paid with money coming from Egypt, leading to the codex being transferred there. The Aleppo Codex, known in Hebrew as Keter Aram Tzova is probably the most famous manuscript of the Tanach, written in the 9th or 10th century by the school of the great Massorete Ben Asher. The juxtaposition of Adonia with Elohim that Nehemia Gordon is talking about can be found at the bottom right of this Allepo codex image. 10י ויקרא אלהים ליבשה ארץ ולמקוה המים קרא ימים וירא אלהים כי טוב The Aleppo Codex without Vowel Points or Punctuation Based on the electronic edition at mechon-mamre.org.. For comparative study, where possible, chapter and verse numbers on Biblos.com sites are mapped to the traditional convention used by the KJV, NASB, NIV and others. In the late 1980s, the codex was placed in the Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum. The Karaite Jewish community of Jerusalem received the book from Israel ben Simha of Basra sometime between 1040 and 1050. The Jerusalem Crown (כתר ירושלים, Keter Yerushalayim, lit. 15טו והיו למאורת ברקיע השמים להאיר על הארץ ויהי כן [20] The ben Asher vocalization is late and in many respects artificial, compared to other traditions and tendencies reaching back closer to the period of spoken Biblical Hebrew. "The Jerusalem Massacre of July 1099 in the Western Historiography of the Crusades." Now the oldest complete manuscript is the Leningrad Codex, which underlies most modern Hebrew and English Bibles. [1] It was preserved at the Karaite, then at the Rabbanite synagogue in Old Cairo, where it was consulted by Maimonides, who described it as a text trusted by all Jewish scholars. The only modern scholar allowed to compare it with a standard printed Hebrew Bible and take notes on the differences was Umberto Cassuto, who examined it in 1943. [1] The Codex disappeared, then reemerged in 1958, when it was smuggled into Israel by Syrian Jew Murad Faham, and presented to the president of the state, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi. The Aleppo Codex is a thousand year old manuscript originally created to help Jews properly read the Torah. This forced him to use the Leningrad Codex instead for the third edition, which appeared in 1937. However, the community limited direct observation of the manuscript by outsiders, especially by scholars in modern times. Blessed be he who preserves it and cursed be he who steals it, and cursed be he who sells it, and cursed be he who pawns it. Goshen-Gottstein suggested (in the introduction to his facsimile reprint of the codex) that not only was it the oldest known masoretic Bible in a single volume, it was the first time ever that a complete Tanakh had been produced by one or two people as a unified entity in a consistent style. So for an extant essentially complete Hebrew copy of Genesis, I think the … Over the years, a few of the missing pages have turned up and many efforts have been made to find the rest of the Aleppo Codex. However, its colophon says only that it was corrected from manuscripts written by ben Asher; there is no evidence that ben Asher himself ever saw it. I wrote a book about this book. His results matched the Aleppo Codex almost exactly. This manuscript was preserved for a thousand years and at some point was relocated to the city of Aleppo … The Aleppo Codex itself disappeared. The Aleppo Codex (once the oldest-known complete copy but since 1947 missing the Torah) dates from the 10th century. [citation needed][dubious – discuss], The Aleppo Codex was submitted by Israel for inclusion in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register and was included in 2015.[7]. This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 21:47. Pentateuch is Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy 3.1 The Extant Parts of the Aleppo Codex In the light of evidence about the Aleppo Codex … א ויהי כל הארץ שפה אחת ודברים אחדים ב ויהי בנסעם מקדם וימצאו בקעה בארץ שנער וישבו שם ג ויאמרו איש אל רעהו הבה נלבנה לבנים ונשרפה … Gênesis 11 ALEP The Aleppo Codex (Hebrew: כֶּתֶר אֲרָם צוֹבָא‎, romanized: Keter Aram Tzova, lit. [10] This halachic ruling gave the Aleppo Codex the seal of supreme textual authority, albeit only with regard to the type of space preceding sections (petuhot and setumot) and for the manner of the writing of the songs in the Pentateuch. It is currently (2019) on display in the Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum. The existence of this Bible was known to 20th-century scholars from the book ‘Ammudé Shesh by Shemuel Shelomo Boyarski, and then the actual Bible itself was discovered by Yosef Ofer in 1989. Some time after arrival, it was found that parts of the codex had been lost. Together with the Leningrad Codex, it contains the Ben-Asher masoretic tradition. [1], The Codex remained in Syria for nearly six hundred years. [10] These Judeo-Arabic letters were discovered by noted Jewish historian Shelomo Dov Goitein in 1952. It is rumoured that in 1375 one of Maimonides' descendants brought it to Aleppo, Syria, leading to its present name. David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra testifies to this being the same codex that was later transferred to Aleppo. The current text is missing all of the Pentateuch to the Book of Deuteronomy 28.17; II Kings 14.21–18.13; Book of Jeremiah 29.9–31.33; 32.2–4, 9–11, 21–24; Book of Amos 8.12–Book of Micah 5.1; So 3.20–Za 9.17; II Chronicles 26.19–35.7; Book of Psalms 15.1–25.2 (MT enumeration); Song of Songs 3.11 to the end; all of Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, and Ezra-Nehemiah.[21]. When the Aleppo Codex was complete (until 1947), it followed the Tiberian textual tradition in the order of its books, similar to the Leningrad Codex, and which also matches the later tradition of Sephardi biblical manuscripts. The codex, however, stayed in Jerusalem until the latter part of that century. Paul E. Kahle, when revising the text of the Biblia Hebraica in the 1920s, tried and failed to obtain a photographic copy. "Jerusalem Crown"), printed in Jerusalem in 2000, is a modern version of the Tanakh based on the Aleppo Codex and the work of Breuer: It uses a newly designed typeface based on the calligraphy of the Codex and is based on its page layout. Matti Friedman, a journalist and contributor to the New York Times Op-Ed Section, is the author of two previous works of nonfiction. [3], The consonants in the codex were copied by the scribe Shlomo ben Buya'a in Palestine circa 920. The Hebrew name is .mw-parser-output .script-hebrew,.mw-parser-output .script-Hebr{font-family:"SBL Hebrew","SBL BibLit","Frank Ruehl CLM","Taamey Frank CLM","Ezra SIL","Ezra SIL SR","Keter Aram Tsova","Taamey Ashkenaz","Taamey David CLM","Keter YG","Shofar","David CLM","Hadasim CLM","Simple CLM","Nachlieli",Cardo,Alef,"Noto Serif Hebrew","Noto Sans Hebrew","David Libre",David,"Times New Roman",Gisha,Arial,FreeSerif,FreeSans}כֶּתֶר אֲרָם צוֹבָא‎ Keter Aram Tzova, translated as "Crown of Aleppo": keter means "crown", and Aram-Zobah was a not-yet-identified biblical city in modern Syria, whose name was applied from the 11th century onward by some Rabbinical sources and Syrian Jews, to the area of Aleppo in Syria. For the six hundred years prior to 1947, it resided in a synagogue in the Syrian town of Aleppo. 18יח ולמשל ביום ובלילה ולהבדיל בין האור ובין החשך וירא אלהים כי טוב 5ה ויקרא אלהים לאור יום ולחשך קרא לילה ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד  {פ}, 6ו ויאמר אלהים יהי רקיע בתוך המים ויהי מבדיל בין מים למים The Aleppo Codex is considered the oldest Hebrew Bible in existence. Several complete or partial editions of the Tanakh based on the Aleppo Codex have been published over the past three decades in Israel, some of them under the academic auspices of Israeli universities. The Aleppo Codex is a book, one of the most important on earth. [8] It was cared for by the brothers Hizkiyahu and Joshya, Karaite religious leaders who eventually moved to Fustat (today part of Old Cairo) in 1050. The Aleppo Codex was written in about 930 in Tiberias and was originally a full manuscript of the entire Bible. The Aleppo Codex was the oldest extant Hebrew Masoretic manuscript of the Old Testament until many pages were lost during a riot in 1947. This leaf rivals in date the earliest Hebrew biblical codices of the 10th or 11th century, such as the surviving parts of the Aleppo Codex (c. 920, Jerusalem, Shrine of the Book), the Damascus Pentateuch (c. 1000, Jerusalem, Hebrew University), the St. Petersburg Codex (dated 1008-9, National Library of Russia, MS.B19a) and The London Codex (10th century, British Library, Or.4445). Several complete or partial editions of the Tanakh based on the Aleppo Codex have been published over the past three decades in Israel, some of them under the academic auspices of Israeli universities. The Codex, known as the Aram-Tzova, and later, the Aleppo Crown, originated in Tiberius in 930CE. Later, while the Codex was in Israel, it was found that no more than 294 of the original (estimated) 487 pages survived. [citation needed], The Codex, as it presents itself now in the Israel Museum where it is kept in a vault, consists of the 294 pages delivered by the Ben-Zvi Institute,[2][16] plus one full page and a section of a second one recovered subsequently. The Dead Sea Scrolls predate the Aleppo Codex, but those scrolls were not consolidated into a single book. Jerusalem Simanim Institute, Feldheim Publishers, 2004 (published in one-volume and three-volume editions). [11] The Letter of the Karaite elders of Ascalon, the more descriptive of the two, states that the money borrowed from Alexandria was used to “buy back two hundred and thirty Bible codices, a hundred other volumes, and eight Torah Scrolls. [4] It was given first to Shlomo Zalman Shragai of the Jewish Agency, who later testified that the Codex was complete or nearly so at the time. [17][3] In particular, the 2012 book The Aleppo Codex by Matti Friedman calls attention to the fact that eyewitnesses in Aleppo who saw the Codex shortly after the fire consistently reported that it was complete or nearly complete, and then there is no account of it for more than a decade, until after it arrived in Israel and was put, in 1958, in the Ben-Zvi Institute, at which point it was as currently described; his book suggests a number of possibilities for the loss of the pages including theft in Israel.

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